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Military Terminology

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I need some terms, real terms, for military things.

I'd like to keep it all Marines or Army terms, I believe sometimes there are differences. (I'd ask my bro in law, but my sis is being ... somehow lately.)

So, the specific things I need terms for are:

Lookout/Watch/Etc... what's that called? Basically, in a war zone, the guy who stays up and watches, first watch, second watch. And does he do it form a lookout point, a roost, a blind (like hunters use)? What? I should know this, but I'm sure someone here does.

I know the Marines use something called a ka-bar. Is that a universal military issue knife, or is that limited to the Marines? Do people know what that is if I drop it into the story, or would the narrator need to say "I pulled out my ka-bar, standard issue military knife"? I hate being so over-explanatory.

What is it called when someone gets a medical discharge? Like, say you get your leg blown off or you get into a fight and then your company, or ballation, or whatever, helps you out by saying you "fell" or something. So you don't get in trouble. Isn't there a term for that?

And finally, when there are missiles going off, are there any good slangs for them besides rockets and missiles?

Any other fun little details about being in a war zone would be cool. I just want to pepper a couple in so my narrator sounds knowledgeable and not like a fake, but the bulk of the story will be dialogue and action. I just want to frame it properly and not come off lame.